Classification of connectors and charging stations of modern electric cars
Over the past decades, the automotive market has gone through a number of modifications and changes. As a result, modern cars are stylish and safe, they have a high level of competitiveness in power and environmental friendliness. Every year the requirements for the number of emissions were tightened. Consequently, fuel cars were modernized, became more environmentally friendly.
In 2019, at the NAIAS and Geneva Motor Show, car manufacturers presented their electric concept cars and announced the release of new electric cars in the near future. Moreover, if earlier “green” cars were inferior in power, now such famous brands as Aston Martin and Audi are working on the implementation of electronic supercars.
At the moment there are 5 main categories of cars by type of the installed power drive:
- Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)
Electric car with extended range electric vehicle (REEV)
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV)
The main differences in their design and technical elements will be discussed later. However, this article will be relevant for PHEV, REEV, BEV cars as that they have chargers.
At the moment, there is no single standard for car charger elements. Perhaps buying a car in Japan or even in Italy, you will not be able to charge it without an additional adapter in German.
So, the first thing faced by the owners of “green cars” is the search for charging stations in the city. Moreover, the connectors of the station vary depending on the region in which you bought the car. In the US, they are represented by three connectors, and in Europe by five.
Types of charging stations:
Mode 1. The type of charging has the lowest power. At the moment it is absolutely not relevant. Among other things, the stations of this connection are unsafe and require 12 hours for the implementation of direct, the charge of the car.
Mode 2. This is a more standard representative of the charging station. This type of charging station is in wide use. The charge takes 6 to 8 hours. The cable of the car is equipped with a special device - Control Box, which provides increased security.
Mode 3. It is also an alternating current station, the advantage of which is in high power.
Mode 4. The station of direct current (previously mentioned station worked at AC power) allows rapid reloading. However, such high power is not designed for any type of electric car. The construction of such a station and its maintenance requires large expenses. And therefore, such items are not available in every city and country.
Special attention is worthy of Tesla Supercharger stations, the principle of which is based on the infused of energy.
- 5-pin Type 1 J1772 connector (Japan and USA) according to Mode 2 and Mode 3 standards.
- Type 1 CCS Combo1 (USA/Japan).
The peculiarity of the combined type of connector is the ability to use fast charging.
- Type 2 (Mennekes) Mode 2, Mode 3.
(China and Europe)
Connector, which is equipped with European brands of cars and some Chinese adapted models. The peculiarity of this type of connector is expressed in the possibility of using a single-phase and three-phase network.
- Type 2 CCS Combo2 connector type (Europe)
One of the most common types of connectors on the European market.
- GB/T (China)
This connector has a visual similarity with the connector Mennekes or Type 2, but the main difference lies in the technical characteristics. The Chinese connector is designed to charge from DC (fast charge) and AC (slow charge) current.
- CHAdeMO (Europe/USA/Japan)
The connector is designed for use on high-power charging stations operating from DC, supports the maximum voltage of 500V at charging stations Mode 4. Of all the connectors presented in this article, the CHAdeMO charging connection is universal for the US, Europe
- [Type 3A] 2P+E+pilot or
Scameand IV Plug Alliance (Italy)
This type of connector can be found on Italian cars. The main difference between the type 2 connector and the type 3 connector is the presence of protection devices against accidental contact with current-carrying parts (IPXXD) on all system components, plugs and sockets.
- Tesla Connectors
The type of cable and connector is the same for the car models of the company (Tesla S, Tesla X and Tesla 3). But it also differs across regions for the US and Europe. However, it is possible to connect an adapter with a CHAdeMO connector type.